There are five typical methods of bending currently used in industry today: rolling, incremental bending, hot bending, rotary-draw bending, and induction bending.
Although ISF is generally very slow, it is of interest because no or only a simple and cheap tool is required, making the process ideal for small-series production. Continue reading
A critical step in any brazing process is the successful removal of oxide films before the process begins and the vacuum brazing process is no different.
In order to prepare the mating surfaces for brazing the ‘clean-up’ process needs to be initiated and this typically happens most effectively between 600 and 850°C. Continue reading
Although austenitic stainless steels are among the most commonly applied corrosion resistant steels challenges exist related to their relatively poor surface hardness and wear resistance.
Low temperature carburizing presents an effective solution to these challenges by increasing surface hardness through a carbon rich diffusion zone which does not compromise the corrosion resistance of the material. Continue reading
Corrosion fatigue occurs through accumulated load cycling resulting in localized irreversible cyclic plastic deformation with as a result of chemical or electrochemical reactions.
Fatigue is already often described as the most common cause of engineering failure and when a corrosive environment is introduced, there are no guarantees for a safe stress range at all.
Free-machining of stainless steels can be greatly improved by changing the alloying elements within the composition but without drastically changing the basic property characteristics of the material.
Some exceptions to the rule can include free-machining grades with high sulfur levels which can lead to a reduction in ductility.
The early grades were alloys of chromium, nickel and molybdenum. Thermodynamically, because the austenite is forming from the ferrite, it is impossible for the alloy to go past the equilibrium level of austenite.
Lean Duplex Stainless Steels have many end uses in oil and gas due to their high strength and good corrosion properties. They have been used for subsea applications including flexible flowlines, umbilical tubing, subsea manifolds, water injection lines and downhole chemical injection tubing.