As with most procedural based technical systems, inevitable variability within the process leads to the potential for quality issues and welding is no different in this regard.
Welding defects can be numerous but most commonly it is possible to encounter porosity issues, contaminant entrapment, inadequate shielding, arc related issues to name but a few.
Laser beam welding provides a large number of quality advantages including speed, accuracy, good consistency in the joint properties.
One relatively new area for laser beam welding is in the welding of magnesium alloys. So far indications are positive with deep penetration welds in cast magnesium being possible with relatively low laser power.
Through achievement of a consistently identical temperature between die and workpiece a uniform deformation can be achieved throughout the material.
Isothermal forging is leading the way to improve efficiency and quality and in particular has driven good advancements in producing a range of titanium alloy components.
Ferro-alloys can basically by split into two groups including bulk ferro-alloys (large quantities) and special ferro-alloys (typically smaller quantities but special importance).
The principle ferro-alloys are those of chromium, manganese and silicon and in the case of chromium a range of advantages can be gained including excellent corrosion resistance.