Pulsed Electric Current Sintering is a relatively new technique which in essence is process which can create near full density contacts at relatively low temperatures.
The main advantages of PECS is that because of these minimal thermal conditions the microstructure of the material is preserved with minimal grain growth.
The high pressure torsion process compacts the material under very high pressure between two plungers producing a very specific material microstructure.
Ultrafine grained materials offer substantial advantage over coarser grained materials displaying higher strength and better ductility.
From the 1980’s it has been generally recognized that there has been an overall drop in the quality of raw materials in the steel making industry.
Coupled with a drive from technology to provide consistently cleaner steels means that producers have had to work on optimizing processes to meet demands.
Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are under scrutiny for a number of reasons but one of the main applications for which they are promising are in-core structural materials for sodium fast reactors.
The key is the material density which gives rise to superior high temperature creep strength and good irradiation resistance.