Electroslag remelting can be summarized as a secondary refining process through consumable electrode remelting.
Characteristics of slag with ample refining ability include optimal electrical resistance, low viscosity, stable content and a low original content of hydrogen.
Forging was the first of the indirect compression-type process and it is probably the oldest method of metal forming. It involves the application of a compressive stress, which exceeds the flow stress of the metal. The stress can either be applied quickly or slowly. The process can be carried out hot or cold, choice of temperature being decided by such factors as whether ease and cheapness of deformation, production of certain mechanical properties or surface finish is the overriding factor.
There are two kinds of forging process, impact forging and press forging. In the former, the load is applied by impact, and deformation takes place over a very short time. Press forging, on the other hand, involves the gradual build up of pressure to cause the metal to yield. The time of application is relatively long. Over 90% of forging processes are hot.
Orbital welding is a relatively new welding technology which was developed in the 1960’s to help the aerospace and nuclear power industries attain a higher level and control over precision welding operations for more reliable components.
Since its introduction, orbital welding has its application in many key areas including boiler tube installation, the food industry, offshore applications and the pharmaceutical industry.
Copper and copper alloys are specific in their corrosion behavior in that the initial corrosion rate of this group of materials is relatively high until protective layers form according to the alloy and the composition of the electrolytic solution.
One prime example of a material group which has found widespread use within the marine environment due to its excellent corrosion resistance are the copper-nickel alloys.