Defects and anomalies are an everyday challenge within the framework of foundry technologies. As demand for castings with very specialized applications rises, the issue of quality becomes more important.
The Rheo Casting process involves using slurry in a semi solid state with the amount of benefits directly linked to the fraction solid at the time of casting. Advantages can include a reduction in shrinkage and significantly reduced latent heat.
The commercial production of titanium plate, sheet, strips, and bars is carried out using hot and cold rolling mills to achieve the necessary reductions and desired shapes. Rolling may be defined as the reduction of the cross-sectional area of a piece by compressive forces applied through rolls.
Cold rolling is carried out at temperatures below which the rate of strain hardening is greater than the rate of recrystallization. When reduction is carried out above such a temperature, the process is termed hot rolling. The major quantity of titanium plate, sheet, strips and bars is processed using hot rolling techniques.
Hot and cold working or shaping of the titanium alloys involves forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing, spinning, and other such operations.
Operations such as forging and rolling, in which the basic ingot is processed into standard forms of billets, sheet, plate, rod, and wire, will be referred to as primary forming operations. Bending, extrusion, drawing, spinning, in which these standard forms are further fabricated, will be referred to as secondary operations.
The emergence of pre-painted steels in the last 100 years has meant a wide range of application specific improvements to material selection across many industries.
Commercial quality products can be divided into 6 main categories and can be distinguished by the manufacturing techniques and subsequent properties.
Copper has sufficient strength, ductility and hardness for these applications at operating temperatures up to 100°C. For many other applications, however, the demands of electrical technology require copper to have higher mechanical properties and to be capable of use at elevated operating temperatures while still retaining the good conductivity for which it is selected in the first place.
Therefore, a large variety of high copper alloys has been developed, whose properties are equal to or, in some cases, higher than those of many other engineering metals, yet, which have conductivities high enough for electrical applications.